Goal: Using the YubiKey for SSH login as a second factor - 2FA.


Setup a VM (for example on DigitalOcean) where you are able to login with your SSH Key.

SSH Key Tutorial

Generate API key from yubico

Yubico API key signup

Copy the Client ID and the Secret key.

Prepare the SSH server

All the following commands have to be executed/configured on the SSH Server.

If you are not working as root add the sudo command in front of the commands.

If you want to use an other user than root for the SSH login, replace root with your specific username.

Add required libraries

add-apt-repository ppa:yubico/stable
apt-get update
apt-get install libpam-yubico

Update PAM settings

Replace Client ID and Secret key with the right values.

vi /etc/pam.d/sshd

# Add in the first line
auth required pam_yubico.so id=[Client ID] key=[Secret key] debug authfile=/etc/yubikey_mappings mode=client

# Comment this line out. We do not want password login as fallback. 
@include common-auth

Get the YubkKey OTP password. To receive the OTP password simple touch the YubiKey while an editor or the terminal is active. It will print out a set of characters. Copy the first twelve characters.

Create a new File /etc/yubikey_mappings

vi /etc/yubikey_mappings

# Adding the user and the first 12 characters of the  Yubikey OTP
root:[12 first OTP characters]

Enable authenticate publickey and pam

vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

# Enable or add following setting
ChallengeResponseAuthentication yes
AuthenticationMethods publickey,keyboard-interactive:pam
UsePAM yes

Restart sshd

Make sure do not logout of your ssh session. If the configuration is wrong or something failed you might not be able to login with SSH again.

service sshd restart


On the client try to login to the SSH server.

# Optional parameter: -v. Verbose option. Helpful for debugging

ssh root@my-server
Enter passphrase for key '/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa': 
YubiKey for `root': 

First you should have to enter the password of your ssh keystore file. Afterwards touch the YubiKey.


Original blog post .